- Jishnu Chatterjee ee18d418@smail.iitm.ac.in
- Guddanti Sivasai ee18s053@smail.iitm.ac.in

- ESB207B

F slot (Tue 4:50-5:40; Wed 11:00-11:50 ; Thu 9:00-9:50; Fri 8:00-8:50)

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- Assignments (10%)
- Quiz-I (20%)
- Quiz-II (20%)
- Final Exam (30%)
- Final Project (20%)

To develop understanding of why power management circuits are needed in a VLSI system. What are different components of a power management system with focus on dc-dc converters. How to design a chip level dc-dc converter from a given system level specifications.

*Introduction to Power Management and Voltage Regulators*:
Need of power management, power management applications, classification of power management, power delivery of a VLSI system, power conversion, discrete vs. integrated power management, types of voltage regulators (switching Vs linear regulators) and applications, converterâ€™s performance parameters (voltage accuracy, power conversion efficiency, load regulation, line regulation, line and load transient response, settling time, voltage tracking), local Vs remote feedback, kelvin sensing, Point-of-Load (POL) regulators.

*Linear Regulators*:
Bandgap Voltage Reference, Low Drop-Out Regulator (LDO), Source and sink regulators, shunt regulator, pass transistor, error amplifier, small signal model and stability analysis, compensation techniques, current limiting, power supply rejection ratio (PSRR), NMOS vs. PMOS regulator, current regulator.

*Switching DC-DC Converters*:
Types (Buck, boost, buck-boost), power FETs, choosing L and C, PWM modulation, leading, trailing and dual edge modulation, Losses in switching converters, output ripple, voltage Vs current mode control, CCM and DCM modes, hysteretic control, switched capacitor dc-dc converters, Small signal model of dc-dc converter, loop gain analysis of un-compensated dc-dc converter, type-I, type-II and type-III compensation, compensation of a voltage mode dc-dc converter, compensation of a current mode dc-dc converter, Selecting topology, selecting switching frequency and external components, sizing power FETs, segmented power FET, designing building blocks (gate driver, PWM modulator, error amplifier, oscillator, ramp generator, feedback resistors), current sensing, PFM/PSM mode for light load, effect of parasitic on reliability and performance, current limit and short circuit protection, soft start control, chip level layout and placement guidelines, board level layout guidelines, EMI considerations.

*Introduction to Advanced Topics in Power Management*:
Digitally controlled dc-dc converters, digitally controlled LDOs, time-based control for voltage regulators, adaptive compensation, dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), Single-Inductor Multiple-Outputs (SIMO) Converters, dc-dc converters for LED lighting, Li-ion battery charger.

- Switch-Mode Power Supplies: SPICE Simulations and Practical Designs by Christophe P. Basso, BPB Publications, 2010
- Fundamentals of Power Electronics, 2nd edition by Robert W. Erickson, Dragan Maksimovic, Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd, 2005
- Power Management Techniques for Integrated Circuit Design By Ke-Horng Chen, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016

- Analog Ciruits or Consent of Teacher (CoT)

Attendance will be strictly enforced.

- Lecture-1: handout (Course contents)
- Lecture-2: handout (Introduction to power management, application, need, discrete vs. integrated PMIC, dc-dc converter, types of dc-dc converter, linear vs switching regulator)
- Lecture-3: handout (Linear vs switching regulator, selecting between linear and switching regulators, power management of a smartphone, performance parameters-efficiency, accuracy, line and load regulation, line transient)
- Lecture-4: handout (Load transient, PSRR, remote vs. local feedback, point-of-load, kelvin sensing, droop compensation)
- Lecture-5: handout (droop compensation, current regulator, bandgap voltage reference)
- Lecture-6: handout (PTAT and CTAT voltage reference, designing a bandgap reference using PTAT and CTAT, Brokaw bandgap reference)
- Lecture-7: handout (Sub-1V bandgap reference, introduction of linear regulator)
- Lecture-8: handout (Pass elements, review of feedback system and bode plot, Loop gain AC analysis, stability criterion and phase margin)
- Lecture-9: handout (Review of 2nd order system, relationship between damping factor and phase margin, stabilizing a linear regulator - compensation techniques)
- Lecture-10: handout (Dominant pole compensation)
- Lecture-11: handout (Dominant pole compensation-contd., miller effect)
- Lecture-12: handout (R.H.P. zero in miller compensation, determining poles and zeroes after miller compensation, pole splitting, removing RH.P. zero)
- Lecture-13: handout (Reducing the effect of R.H.P. zero, load regulation and output impedance of LDO)
- Lecture-14: handout (Line regulation and power supply rejection of LDO, NMOS LDO)
- Lecture-15: handout (Sources of error in regulator, static offset correction)
- Lecture-16: handout (Dynamic offset cancellation, digital LDO)
- Lecture-17: handout (Hybrid LDO, current limit and short circuit protection)
- Lecture-18: handout (Switching regulator concept, inductor ripple current, volt-second balance, power stage and calculating duty cycle resistive losses)
- Lecture-19: handout (Transfer model of a buck converter, efficiency of switching regulator, efficiency with only conduction losses, synchronous and non-synchronous converter)
- Lecture-20: handout (Losses in switching dc-dc converter, conduction loss, gate switching loss, dead time switching loss)
- Lecture-21: handout (Hard switching loss, magnetic loss, power loss vs. load current)
- Lecture-22: handout (Output voltage ripple in dc-dc converter, ripple voltage vs. duty cycle, ripple voltage vs input supply voltage, choosing inductor and capacitor)
- Lecture-23: handout (Continuous and dis-continuous conduction modes)
- Lecture-24: handout (Pulse width modulation - trailing, leading and dual edge modulation, voltage mode control, small signal modelling of dc-dc converter)
- Lecture-25: handout (Small signal loop gain analysis using continuous time model, dominant pole compensation - type-I or integral compensation)
- Lecture-26: handout (Designing type-I compensator using opamp-RC and gm-C)
- Lecture-27: handout (Type-II compesator, designing type-II compensator using gm-C)
- Lecture-28: handout (Designing type-II compensator using opamp-RC, Type-III compensator, type-III to PID transformation)
- Lecture-29: handout (Designing type-III compensator using opamp-RC)
- Lecture-30: handout (Designing type-III compensator using gm-C)
- Lecture-31: handout (Feed-forward line compensation, loop gain compensation using gm modulation)
- Lecture-32: handout (Designing a buck converter, budgeting power loss, sizing power MOSFETs)
- Lecture-33: handout (Estimating switching losses, finding values of L & C)
- Lecture-34: handout (Bandwidth limited load transient response, inductor limited load load transient response, re-calucating the output capacitor based on load transient, selecting inductor, inductor saturation and rated currents)
- Lecture-35: handout (Selecting capacitor, effect of capacitor ESL, reducing the effect of ESL by using parallel capacitors)
- Lecture-36: handout (PWM ramp generator, oscillator as a triangle wave generator, effect of ramp common mode on error amplifier gain, shifting common mode a ramp)
- Lecture-37: handout (Design considerations of error amplifier, delays associated with PWM modulator, pulse skip modulation (PSM) and pulse frequency modulation (PFM))
- Lecture-38: handout (Implementing DCM operation, designing a zero cross comparator/detector)
- Lecture-39: handout (Current mode control - basic concept, voltage vs. current mode control, types of current mode control - peak, valley and emulated, sub-harmonic oscillations and current loop instability, ramp/slope compensation, adaptive slope compensation)
- Lecture-40: handout (Hysteretic control, instability in a voltage mode hysteretic converter, stabilizing a hysteretic converter using Resr, frequency variation in hysteretic converter, calculating Resr and Cout)
- Lecture-41: handout (Current mode hysteretic converter, using R-C as ripple generator, error correction in current mode converter, controlling switching frequency of a hysteretic converter)
- Lecture-42: handout (Fixed frequency hysteretic converter)
- Lecture-43: handout (Constant ON/OFF time control, boost converter)
- Lecture-44: handout (Buck-Boost converter, tri-mode buck boost converter, issue with mode transition, transition boundary condition)
- Lecture-45: handout (Generating PWM in a tri-mode buck-boost, digital control in buck-boost mode)
- Lecture-46: handout (Switched capacitor dc-dc converter, application as cascaded switched capacitor and inductive dc-dc converter, regulating output using PFM/Burst mode)
- Lecture-48: handout (Analog layout techniques)
- Lecture-49: handout (Digitally controlled dc-dc converters)
- Lecture-50: handout (Time-based voltage regulators)

You can find lectures from previous years below: